It has been almost seven years now since patent litigation in France has been fully centralized in Paris. Patent cases used to be heard in various Tribunaux de Grande Instance (TGIs) in the entire country. The number of TGIs having jurisdiction for patent matters was progressively reduced and finally all cases were consolidated in Paris.
Similarly, at the appeal level, the Cour d’appel de Paris has now exclusive jurisdiction in all patent cases. We can still see from time to time decisions issued by other Cours d’appel in relation with legal actions started a number of years ago before the centralization was completed.
But new cases do not normally end up in a court outside of Paris, save if the plaintiff makes the unfortunate mistake of filing its writ of summons with the wrong court.
The present case is an exception, but certainly not one due to an ill-informed litigant. On the contrary, this was certainly the result of a sophisticated (although, in the end, unsuccessful) strategy by Swedish pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca AB.
AstraZeneca owns European patent No. EP 0907364 covering the active substance quietapine for treating schizophrenia, and markets a corresponding pharmaceutical product called Xeroquel.
Generic company Mylan filed a nullity action in connection with the French part of the patent on April 28, 2015, in front of the Paris TGI – which, as recalled below, has exclusive jurisdiction for patent matters, including nullity actions of course. Apparently, another nullity action had already been started earlier in 2014 by Accord, and Mylan filed an intervention so as to be part of that nullity action. How Mylan can be part of two different actions having the same purpose is an interesting question which is however not addressed in the decision that I am reporting on today.
Mylan launched its generic version of Xeroquel at risk, without waiting for the outcome of the nullity action. Accordingly, AstraZeneca filed a counterclaim for infringement of the French part of the European patent on June 9, 2015, still in front of the Paris TGI.
Now comes the interesting part.
AstraZeneca attempted to obtain interim relief against Mylan. The usual way to do this, if an infringement claim is already pending in front of the Paris court, is to file a motion with the judge in charge of case management, who then decides on the motion pending the full trial on the merits. But AstraZeneca did not take the usual path.
Instead, AstraZeneca filed a motion for interim relief in front of the “juge des référés“, i.e. the judge in charge of urgency proceedings, at… the Tribunal de commerce (sometimes nicknamed T. com.) in Lyon. In this motion, AstraZeneca did not submit a patent infringement claim, but rather a claim for unfair competition.
Why apply to the juge des référés of the T. com.? Because, AstraZeneca stated, this is the judge having general jurisdiction for granting interim relief in situations of unfair competition. But why a judge in Lyon? Because, the defendant having its seat close to this city, this is the judge who had territorial jurisdiction – still in keeping with general, non-patent rules of judicial organization.
The Lyon judge accepted to hear the case and issued an order prohibiting Mylan from marketing the quietapine generic drug until the expiry of the French part of the European patent, i.e. May 27, 2017, or until a final decision of revocation is issued; a recall of the products was also ordered, as well as a publication of the decision.
In summary, AstraZeneca obtained the most positive result that they could ever have hoped for.
The order was issued on November 12, 2015. Mylan reacted by immediately filing an appeal and by requesting accelerated appeal proceedings. The entire process was, I must say, particularly fast and efficient, since the decision of the Cour d’appel de Lyon on this matter is dated December 17, 2015 – so the complete appeal process took only one month. The Cour d’appel set aside the first instance order and declared that the motion filed in front of the juge des référés in Lyon was in fact inadmissible because the judge had no jurisdiction.
A word must probably be said here of the differences between a TGI and a T. Com.:
- TGIs are general courts dealing with civil matters. T. com.s, on the other hand are specialized in handling disputes between commercial companies (or persons).
- TGIs are exclusively composed of government-appointed judges, while T. com.s are composed of elected judges.
- Accordingly, TGI judges are professional judges, who are civil servants, while judges in T. com.s are company managers.
I have heard some lawyers familiar with T. com.s say that these courts are somewhat unpredictable and can sometimes render pretty wild decisions. What is almost certain is that the juge des référés was not fully aware of the subtleties of IP law, which is very far from his or her everyday practice.
So, again, it was a bold and clever move for AstraZeneca to request the preliminary injunction far from the Ile de la Cité in Paris. The judge in charge of case management at the TGI would likely have made a more severe assessment of the patentee’s case – not least because the European patent was already revoked in six other countries, including Germany, the UK and the Netherlands, as we learn in the Cour d’appel decision.
Now, going back to the issue of jurisdiction, article L.615-17 of the Code de la propriété intellectuelle provides that
Civil actions and motions relating to utility patents, including […] when they also concern a connected issue of unfair competition, are exclusively heard by [TGIs] mentioned in a decree […].
The decree in question names the Paris TGI as the one having exclusive jurisdiction for the purposes of article L.615-17.
Therefore the central issue, which was revisited by the Cour d’appel, is to which extent the claim brought by AstraZeneca in Lyon was related to a patent, or a connected issue of unfair competition.
The answer to this question prima facie seems pretty obvious, so how did the patent proprietor defend its position?
Again, they were rather creative, in that they stayed away from the Code de la propriété intellectuelle (which contains the definition of patent infringement), and rather argued that Mylan had committed other torts, and more specifically:
- violated articles L.4113-6, L.4163-2, L.5122-10 and R.5122-17 of the Code de la santé publique, article 1382 of the Code civil and article 18.104.22.168 of the rules of ethics applicable to pharma labs, by offering free unsollicited samples of generic quietapine to pharmacists;
- violated articles L.5122-1 and L.5122-2 of the Code de la santé publique, article 1382 of the Code civil as well as the recommendations issued by the ANSM (i.e. the regulatory authority in charge of pharmaceutical products), by inserting the mention “identical to the original drug” on its ads; and
- violated article 1382 of the Code civil by committing passing off, in view of the aspect of the generic quietapine packaging and tablets.
But such creativity did not pay off in front of the Cour d’appel, which held that:
the facts and evidence submitted to the judge for defining a manifestly illicit breach caused by disloyalty in free competition are necessarily linked to the rights that AstraZeneca derives from their patent, which confers a monopoly to them until its expiry or until its revocation by a court, the effect of which is retroactive, so that the civil action started in front of the juge des référés of the Tribunal de commerce de Lyon is necessarily a connected unfair competition action, so that he does not have jurisdiction due to the subject-matter and the exclusivity of jurisdiction imparted by statute to the Paris TGI.
Said otherwise, all torts possibly committed by Mylan in this case are closely related to the alleged patent infringement. Patent infringement is a matter for the Paris TGI to rule upon, not for the Lyon T. com., and so are any side claims linked to this patent infringement (such as the passing off claim).
The court also stated that the various violations of the Code de la santé publique alleged by the patentee were not relevant, because this is a law which does not regulate competition between pharma companies:
All the violations of the Code de la santé publique which are alleged do not aim at protecting competition but rather public health, notably by imposing rules of ethics to pharmaceutical labs and by imposing advertising rules protecting drug consumers.
The alleged violations are not within the ambit of jurisdiction of the juge des référés of the tribunal de commerce, for deciding measures of injunction […] similar to those that the infringement judge could take, because these violations, if they existed, would not constitute a manifestly illicit breach of free competition.
And thus the logical conclusion was that:
[…] although it is certain that the juge des référés of the tribunal de commerce has in principle jurisdiction with respect to proven unfair competition, when there is a manifestly illicit breach, in order to take preliminary and injunction measures, even if there is a serious defense, because he is the natural judge between two commercial companies, […] the special provisions of the Code de la propriété intellectuelle prevail when, as in the present case, commercial parties are opposed in a lawsuit relating to intellectual property, the judge of which, having jurisdiction for ruling on the validity of the title or on infringement, has been previously applied to, before the urgency unfair competition claim.
The judge of the Lyon tribunal de commerce has thus in this case no jurisdiction for ruling as he did and committed abuse of power.
Last but not least, the court ordered AstraZeneca to pay 100,000 euros of attorney fees to Mylan, which looks like a fairly high amount in the context of urgency proceedings. Courts have an almost complete discretion in terms of reimbursement of attorney fees, which they decide on as a matter of equity. Usually, when the amount is remarkably high, there is a sense that the court may have wanted to punish the losing party and to send a warning message.
CASE REFERENCE: Cour d’appel de Lyon, 1ère chambre civile, section A, December 17, 2015, Mylan SAS v. AstraZeneca SAS & AstraZeneca AB,
RG No. 2015/08783.